Make a Buddhist Pilgrimage
Arguably the holiest place in Japan, Koyasan is a complex of 117 Buddhist temples, ensconced in the cedar-forested mountains of central Japan’s Kii Peninsula. It is the home of Shingon Buddhism, where monks and pilgrims study, strive for perfect enlightenment—and happily share the experience with visitors. Koyasan is accessible by train from Osaka, but for the true spiritual journey, disembark at Kudoyama and trek there along the 14-mile Choisi Pilgrim Route, which winds past 180 five-tiered stone stupas, dating from the 13th century. Join monks for chants and prayers at early morning services, explore lush gardens, pagodas, and shrines, and don’t miss the Okunoin cemetery, final resting place of sundry samurai, kabuki actors, animals, nobility, and Kobo Daishi himself, founder of Shingon Buddhism. The only thing that might disturb your sense of serenity here is the "corporate tomb," in which professional associates were buried together—unless you like the idea of spending eternity with your co-workers.
Vitals: Hop the Nankai Electric Railway from Namba Station, in Osaka (shukubo.jp/eng). Fifty-three temples offer accommodations, called shukubo, ranging from hostel-like to zen-plush; make reservations at the Tourist Information Center ($75, including breakfast and dinner).
2. YONAGUNI JIMA
Dive a Lost City
"They’re a cross between the pyramids and Mayan ruins—only underwater," says scuba tour operator Lisa Slater of the stone formations off Yonaguni Jima’s coast. Discovered in 1986, the mysterious site is surrounded by controversy: Some claim it’s the handiwork of a 12,000-year-old civilization; others contend that what appear to be extensive carved megaliths, staircases, and a stone turtle statue are simply the work of natural erosion. But, Slater says, "it’s a phenomenal dive site regardless. Beautiful, warm water with a hundred feet of visibility, large drop-offs, and reef walls." Slater’s California-based Open Coast Travel runs trips there year-round, but divemaster Doug Bennett of Reef Encounters in Okinawa favors winter diving at Yonaguni, when migrating humpback whales and hammerhead sharks "spice things up a bit." Southern Japan scuba trips are best launched from Okinawa, which has great diving in its own right, with exotica such as pygmy seahorses and frogfish. And any scuba itinerary here should include Zamami, in the nearby Kerama Islands, and Ishigaki Shima; both have gently sloping reefs and a laid-back, Key West vibe that’s fun even for nondivers.
Vitals: Open Coast Travel runs a nine-day trip to Okinawa, Zamami, and Yonaguni Jima ($1,395, all-inclusive; opencoastravel.com). Reef Encounters runs one-day drift dives in Okinawa and the Kerama Islands ($120; reefencounters.org).
Hike Among Ancient Cedars
The colossal, millennia-old cedars of subtropical Yakushima island draw flocks of hikers, but most come to gawk at a single tree: 7,200-year-old Jomon-sugi, considered the oldest in Japan—if not the world. The ancient behemoth, at 83 feet tall and 50 feet wide, is certainly worth a visit, but the surrounding forest shouldn’t be missed. These gnarled trees are massive in girth, festooned with epiphytic rhododendrons and azaleas, and frequently shrouded in mist. (The locals swear it rains 370 days a year here.) Take a three-day, 18-mile traverse of rugged Yakushima, starting near Onoaida, to the north coast village of Kusugawa. A side hike on day two leads to Miyanoura-dake, the island’s 6,348-foot apex. Finish with a stay in the upscale Iwasaki Hotel, whose hot baths have cedar log floors.
Vitals: Fly from Tokyo to Kagoshima, on Kyushu island; connect to the city of Miyanoura, on Yakushima island, via Japan Air Commuter or the Toppy 2 Ferry ($80, round-trip).